Guilt as fiction

053_Silvia Pagani_ITA

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Summary. The working hypothesis of this article is that the sense of guilt of disabled children’s parents is a fiction protecting themselves from inexpressible and unthinkable feelings and from the possibility of a new catastrophic break in their life. In fact, the sense of guilt satisfies parents’ needs of rigid stability and unalterable safety, because it paralyses creative and projectual Self and turns life time into an eternal present, without hope.

ART AND CULTURE: Lo stile di vita e le finzioni: considerazioni sul romanzo “Lord Jim” di Joseph Conrad

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The sense of life: looking for “fiction”

059_Sergio De Dionigi_Carolina Gasparini_ITA

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Summary.  The authors analyse the evolution of the concept of fiction contained in Adler’s writings, then underline the significant absence of this concept in this last works and justify such choice in the light of Adler’s relation with U.S. psychology. In this way, they highlight the great importance of Adler’s aim popularizing and divulging his theory, using a quite new mode of expression and a new language. Afterwards, the authors examine in detail the sense of absence of the concept of fiction in Adler’s last works. Then they compare Adler and Freud’s opinion on the U.S.A., showing the deep diversity between their thought. Finally, the authors present an interpretation of Adler’s ideas based on radical constructivism. In conclusion, they formulate a hypothesis based on Adler’s life giving reason for his choice of living.

The dream in the Adlerian analysis

064_Lino Graziano Grandi_ITA

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 Summary. Freud is convinced that the dreams are a way to make wishes to come true. But these aspect is a limitation, and so the author proposes to overcome it. For example, we can consider the phenomenon of hallucination as a part connected with the dream’s structure. While interpreting dreams with the individual psychology method one must take in account the sense of reality. Then the discussion evolves with Freud’s idea that oneiric hallucination comes from regression. The dream is also compared to a neurotic symptom. It is furthermore presumed that the dream is a camouflaged dramatization of unconscious conflicts with traumatic aspects, and their unrealistic resolutions. Finally, we must not forget the presence of influences coming from our daily lives.

Dream and symbol in the sign of “style” as a strict language

064_Alberto Mascetti_ITA

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Summary. In Individual Psychology, the dream is a fictional and creative activity. It represents one of the main way to know the lifestyle of a person since it can reveal the unconscious symbolism of the individual.

Fiction and counter-attitude

068_Alessandra Bianconi_ITA

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Summary. In the theoretical-methodological Adlerian system, concepts of fiction, fictional goal, enhanced fiction, subtend the psychic development of the individual, the unfolding of his intrapsychic dynamism and of his possibility to be in relationship with other people. These concepts also subtend his psycho-pathological patterns and the stages of psychotherapeutic process. Recent neuro-scientific and psychotherapy process research have shown the full analyst’s role, together with the patient, to create and develop therapeutic alliance and relationship. The counter-attitude, in the current Adlerian meaning, shows the complexity of therapist’s transference and counter-transference movements towards the patient. The “functionality” of the counterattitude, represents a track of work for the therapist and for the therapeutic couple, for it is a path towards goals of changing, therapeutic goals, also fictional, as overviews on new possibilities of freedom for the patient. In the unfolding of therapeutic processes, therapist’s and patient’s fictional goals (both the evolutionary, going towards the projectable pole of the individual, and the psycho pathogen ones) intertwine with therapy’s purposes. For this reason, therapist’s attention will have to be constant, in order to make the fictionalizing of his own counter-attitude, functional towards therapy’s purposes, serving a possible and advantageous changing for the patient (oriented to the useful side of life). The risk of iatrogenic effects can show up when the fictions of the therapeutic process are intertwined with an excessive methodological rigidity or, on the contrary, with an excessive emotionality of the meeting and when these fictions collude with the therapist’s needs, or with patient’s fictional goals, or fictional goals of both.

The aesthetic fictions in the individualpsychology theory

068_Daniela Bosetto_ITA

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Summary. In this work I analyze the role of the aesthetic finction according the adlerian model. I put a particular attention to the story of the dream of a patient, highlighting the analogy between dreams and poetry. Then, I underline the aesthetic finctions, since these are representation forms capable of arousing strong emotions.

Psychotherapy: a cure for the fictions, a fiction that cures

068_Carmela Canzano_ITA

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Summary. Adlerian psychotherapy aims – inside the empathic relationship with the patient – at individuating and transforming the strengthened fictions, that, born as a compensation of inferiority, have become absolute laws for the patient. Empathy alone is not enough to start a disadvantageous lifestyle change; it is necessary that therapist’s mind meets the patient’s mental constructs so that a reflexive thought can be realized together. Psychotherapy, as a relationship built on patient’s need of care – an asymmetric relationship, regulated by the setting and by the theoretical reference model –, is a relational fiction useful for the cure.

Fiction and Lifestyle

068_Francesca Di Summa_Bruno Vidotto_ITA

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Summary. The two Adlerian meanings of “fiction” are linked to lifestyle, “modus vivendi” and “modus operandi”. The hardest part of the analytical process lies in breaking down the objective and subjective elements: the analyst has to intervene and to “fix”, if possible. We observe a significant interdependence and interference between fictions and lifestyle.

Fictions and the process of change

068_Secondo Fassino_ITA

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Summary.  Even if brain imaging techniques are providing evidence to the effectiveness of psychotherapy, the way it involves the unconscious has been scarcely described. These findings are useful to better understand the so called “factors of change”. The concepts of the Individual Psychology of fiction and compensation seem useful to clarify how the therapeutic relationship can provide a new attachment. In order to activate the factors of change a valid and non fictional recognition is needed and a synthonic answer to the wide range of communications that patients express. According to recent neurobiological acquisitions, what is known without being thought represents the bases of operative models, both of the inner and interpersonal dialogue. Implicit knowledge and fictional systems, both in the patient and in the therapist, represent a crucial area, a mix of activations and fruitions of the experiences of empathic imitation, of affiliation, and new authentic cooperation. In order to reach what our patients cannot express with words, we have to synchronize with our subjective experience: acts, evocations, non verbal messages etc are the means through which patients and therapists share what they have known, but not thought. The shared implicit relationship turns out to be the fulcrum of change, representing in the “hic et nunc” an inter-subjective meeting of the self with others, which is made possible by previous therapist-patient relationship.