Fictions and the process of change

068_Secondo Fassino_ITA

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Summary.  Even if brain imaging techniques are providing evidence to the effectiveness of psychotherapy, the way it involves the unconscious has been scarcely described. These findings are useful to better understand the so called “factors of change”. The concepts of the Individual Psychology of fiction and compensation seem useful to clarify how the therapeutic relationship can provide a new attachment. In order to activate the factors of change a valid and non fictional recognition is needed and a synthonic answer to the wide range of communications that patients express. According to recent neurobiological acquisitions, what is known without being thought represents the bases of operative models, both of the inner and interpersonal dialogue. Implicit knowledge and fictional systems, both in the patient and in the therapist, represent a crucial area, a mix of activations and fruitions of the experiences of empathic imitation, of affiliation, and new authentic cooperation. In order to reach what our patients cannot express with words, we have to synchronize with our subjective experience: acts, evocations, non verbal messages etc are the means through which patients and therapists share what they have known, but not thought. The shared implicit relationship turns out to be the fulcrum of change, representing in the “hic et nunc” an inter-subjective meeting of the self with others, which is made possible by previous therapist-patient relationship.

Working on fictions in psychotherapy: the meaning of setting

068_Andrea Ferrero_ITA

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Summary. Detecting patient’s apperception scheme is a specific aspect of empathic comprehension, while the therapist is involved to receive patient’s communication and to differentiate the significance of his emotions, thoughts and symbols. According to IP, the concept of apperception schemes relates to the concept of fiction. Adler states that fictions are cognitive figures as well as symbolic memory images, for the most part unconscious. During the sessions, a particular attention is paid to the patient’s apperception schemes with respect to transference, that is all the patient lives and associates in a fictional way to the therapist, though deriving from a former object relation. Furthermore, also symptoms and some pathogenic factors of psychiatric disorders could be considered as fictional. More in detail, the whole adaptation and defence mechanisms of the individual are mainly symbolic, while proceeding from the past and becoming oriented towards the future. According to Adlerian Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (APP), psychotherapeutic setting is described as a settled framework devoted to detect and change some dysfunctional fictions of the patient during the psychotherapy.

Fiction in the therapeutic relationship through past, present and future

068_Giuseppe Ferrigno_ITA

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Summary. The therapist is, in particular, an expert novelist who writes with the patient a story which has been lost in the “dark forest”; they create a “new story”, the one of the couple patient and therapist. In the analytic relationship patient’s story is told, deconstructed, revised, lived again and then placed in its dimension of personal myth to be compared with the analyst’s personal myth. All that takes place in the particular “relational fiction” of the setting: proxemic space, times, fares, rules etc. The therapist does not often reply what the patient insistently asks him about his own private life because the fictional relation of the setting could turn into a real relationship. Scheherazade, in The Thousand and One Nights, like in an analytic context, tells his thousand and one stories, and faces as a therapist the king’s suffering taking care of it and saving herself and the King himself. The real treatment and the true cure develop through the “real” emotional and sentimental story which silently interlaces between Scheherazade and the King. A “new story” begins when the patient enters the consulting room. The “story of a relationship”, based on the emotions of the therapist and the patient, creates a “new” emotional experience for them both which takes care of the original injury and of the inferiority. The clinical history with the transfer and countertransfer relationship becomes a “real emotional story”, the one of the couple patient and therapist.

Network of fictions

068_Lino Graziano Grandi_ITA

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Summary. According to the author “fiction” is a specific positivistic interpretation of the universal values of knowing and acting. We will discuss the relationship which goes from the “ideal” to reality, with reference to the “idealistic positivism”, by making real some beliefs which stem from a unique attitude of the soul coming from the most intimate needs, that stabilize and seduce, without the subject truly penetrating the being. In this way the author establishes a connection to the philosophy of Vaihinger, where the “as if” refers primarily to cognitive processes, which are organizations and systems of science. All human knowledge is fiction. To know is not to reflect passively and reproduce the real, but to orient oneself to the practical means of reality.We will then emphasize the psychological distinction between fiction and hypothesis, and between fiction and half fiction. The fictional theory assumes significance as the “technology of the logical function” which allows to define the value of ideas, principles, categories, universal patterns, etc.. in relation to the punctuality of perceptual experience. There is therefore a pragmatic subordination of knowledge to life and will propose examples of the most frequent and archaic “idols” which often preside – even in an incongruous way – human action.

Fictions and Life-Style

068_Alberto Mascetti_ITA

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Summary. The Author analyses the concept of fiction, he recognizes the philosophic origin and the psychological manipulation made by Adler. He creates, by these representations and by the fictional compensation, the human personality. Adler defines the personality as the style of life: the individual relational and original way every subject organizes to look for a fictional aim. The correct style of life recognizes the balance between personal and social needs, psychological expression of a need of justice, that it is hard to have in philosophy and in politics. The Author finds also in neurotic style of life a need of justice, also if it is used by an instrumental and special way. He feels in the concept of social feeling a need of justice that permeates all the individual- psychological construction.

Patient-therapist relation: the meeting of fictions

068_Donato Munno_Giuseppina Zullo_Silvana Lerda_ITA

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Summary. Comparative Individual Psychology on the one hand is proposed as a theory of the person and not as a theory of the mind, on the other hand it links to Psychiatric Clinic like a method to understand and like a therapeutic tool. In addition, it is important to remember that the theoretical assumption of the fiction, as well as others aspects of this theory, eludes the neuroscientific research. In particular, in this paper, the typology of fictions of therapist and patience is reported. Then the paper is focused on the typology of the meeting of fictions, regarding to clinical pictures of patients responsive or not to psychotherapy. In the conclusion the author describes the therapist as an “anthropological interviewer” and a “chameleon of the method” and describes the different, and sometimes transcultural, psychological- clinical interventions with a “modulated intensity”, that are sometimes focalized on relation, sometimes on the phases of the psychotherapeutic pathway, sometimes on analytic interventions. However, the main theme of each intervention seems to lean on three theoretical-clinical assumptions that are essential to respect for the psychological-clinical interventions timetable: “as when”, “as if”, “as you are”.

Vicissitudes of the fictions

068_Gian Giacomo Rovera_ITA

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Summary.  In the last ten years the concept of fiction has resulted in meanings that are complex and different with respect to the traditional terms and to the theory and practice of Individual Comparative Psychology. The psychological “geography” has led to a screening of scientific and clinical research, including also epistemological studies, and even to new psycho-neurological-biological discoveries. Moreover, the present shape of things has resulted in a “reversal” concerning the interpretative horizons of linguistic attitudes, both verbal and non-verbal (for example “irony”) – right up to the arrival o a sort of change of vicissitude of the fictions. “Fictional attitudes” whenever they are shared psychologically are “as if“ they could be propelled up to a meeting point between the subjectivity of the individual and general human actions with respect to the status and roles wherever culturally institutionalized. This could come represent one of the foundations anthropologically and teleonomicamentally oriented. There is, therefore, an opportunity for examining not only some of basic presuppositions of Individual Psychology Comparated, but even a reproposing of concepts like “ fictions” and “as if” as being important aspects of ontogenetic development, of the rational mind, of language and socio-cultural dealings. The “Let’s pretend”, and the “pretence” itself, not underestimating their intended reception and their possible disclosure, assume an importance of the “comprehension/explicative” type such as to enable them to be employed through skills and therapeutic approaches (like individuality/metallization “enactment” and “disclosure”). This is development model of the Neo-Fictionalism. A conscious planning and definition of these “adventures” may enrich the Adlerian model in relation to certain aspects theoretical, methodological, practical, clinical cultural and above all therapeutic, bringing into action new interdisciplinary prospects about “explicative comprehension”.

Endless eclecticism

069_Pier Luigi Pagani_ITA

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Summary. This work comes back to the topic, already dealt with in the past, concerning the negative consequences of eclecticism, to a psychotherapeutic theory tested from results. Precisely because of the multiplicity of psychotherapeutic systems available today in the world, there is no absolute truth, there is no means to verify or falsify the statements of a theory, so that it can be defined as scientific. Specifically, the author highlights the unjustified critics to some basic concepts of the Adlerian theory, which cannot be confused, such as the will of power and the aspiration to superiority. The difference between the expression will of power by Adler and Nietzsche is then examined and it is highlighted the mistake made by some detractors when they match the concept of will of power to the one of aspirationality and desire to emerge. This implies a confusion between a tool used to reach an end and the end itself. The fact of putting in doubt the conception of inferiority is even a more serious mistake; it would be as if we were renouncing to the basic principles of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler, denying the foundations.

From death in the family to the inferiority feeling

069_Chiara Marocco Muttini_ITA

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Summary. The individual is the result of different factors, either biological, psychological, social or cultural, which all contribute to shape the lifestyle with behaviors which can be either brave or coward with respect to how aggressiveness is expressed. The experiences of the first years of life have a lot of significance during the process of evolution of the individual, and consequently the behavior of the parents and the response to the needs of the child are crucial. Every dysfunction in the process of compensation of the inferiority feeling leads to different psycho-pathological expressions. The effects on the lifestyle are  also the results of those educational unconscious messages which are induced by existential situations,  critical also for the adults involved in the education process. Three cases of minors who have lost the  father are highlighted in the personal contribution; the educational behavior of the mother has led to  a lack of resilience or vice versa a positive compensation of the inferiority feeling. The difference in  the effects of the death is linked to the process of encouragement arising both from the affection  demonstrated to the child and the faith in the resources of the child himself.

Evolutionary and constructivist characters of Adlerian psychology

069_Cosimo Varriale_Mariarosaria Rotondo_ITA

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Summary. The authors highlight some aspects that put the psychodynamic and psychosocial  Adlerian  model in line with the evolutionary theory and make the epistemic individual psychological  paradigm a precursor of more recent trends in cognitive-constructivist sciences.