Language and social feeling: from the river of savana to the study of psychotherapy

The pdf version of the full article will be available for download in Italian only.


Verbal language developed from the gestural language of anthropomorphic monckeys. This evolution was driven by the need to cope with emotions and attitudes, which led to an improvement of communication and to the birth of empathy. Nevertheless, the development of social feeling could
be impacted by the Dunbar’s number, which can explain aggressivity and violence among groups. In this
respect, it is possible that the acquisition of verbal language is correlated to the rise of schizofrenia. Lastly
we will describe possible uses of language as encouragement for a fruitful cooperation in psychotherapy.


"The King's speech"; individual-psychological interpretation of a case of stuttering

Poster session presented at the XXIII S.I.P.I. National Congress – “The network of the compensatory functions in the Adlerian theory and practice”, Milan, 2012.

The full article is available for download in Italian only.

Summary. This paper aims to propose an individual-psychological interpretation of stuttering, starting from the analysis of the ‘case’ of King George VI, King of England and father of the actual Queen Elizabeth, whose human and historical events have recently been told in the movie “The King’s Speech” (T. Hooper, 2010). After the preliminary introduction of the plot of the film, told through the most significant passages in the evolution of the character and history, we proceed with the reconstruction of the King’s family constellation, in order to identify the most significant features for the development of his personality. Then, the individualpsychological interpretations of King’s Life Style focuses on the description of his stutter as a compensatory mechanism used by the King to face his personological vulnerabilities. Particular attention to the relationship between the patient and the speech therapist, is finally paid, in order to highlight the key aspects of his ‘(psycho)therapeutic’ function.


Tra Logica e Miticismo. Le ipercompensazioni di Kurt Godel

Paper presented at the XXIII S.I.P.I. National Congress – “The network of the compensatory functions in the Adlerian theory and practice”, Milan, 2012.

The pdf file and the Summary are not available at the moment. If you are interested in this article, please send your request to the following address

The fictions of cinematographic language

040_Roberta Marasco_ITA

The full article is available for download in Italian only. DOWNLOAD PDF

Summary.  Cinematographic language leads to his own form of narration through the combination of pieces inclined to the concreteness of reality, which the spectator organizes in terms of temporal, spacial and causal relations. This process involves conceptual forms, related and submitted to individual experiences, definable fictions, in adlerian terms. Analogies between the conditions imposed during the vision of a film and early childhood, support the bound among film fictions and the individual life-plan.

Time and the modern psychopathology

063_Silvia Pagani_ITA

The full article is available for download in Italian only. DOWNLOAD PDF

Summary. The destructuration of the sense of time, typical of many personality disorders, shows us the weakness, the precariousness and the delicacy of those patients and the difficulty to live in a fluent world which is unforesseable and incoprehensible in its rapid changes. Future is vague and it can’t be seen as a possibility but as a distress. The temporal horizon is reduced to the present and the long term project, which defines the personal identity, is also reduced.


Vicissitudes of the fictions

068_Gian Giacomo Rovera_ITA

The full article is available for download in Italian only. DOWNLOAD PDF

Summary.  In the last ten years the concept of fiction has resulted in meanings that are complex and different with respect to the traditional terms and to the theory and practice of Individual Comparative Psychology. The psychological “geography” has led to a screening of scientific and clinical research, including also epistemological studies, and even to new psycho-neurological-biological discoveries. Moreover, the present shape of things has resulted in a “reversal” concerning the interpretative horizons of linguistic attitudes, both verbal and non-verbal (for example “irony”) – right up to the arrival o a sort of change of vicissitude of the fictions. “Fictional attitudes” whenever they are shared psychologically are “as if“ they could be propelled up to a meeting point between the subjectivity of the individual and general human actions with respect to the status and roles wherever culturally institutionalized. This could come represent one of the foundations anthropologically and teleonomicamentally oriented. There is, therefore, an opportunity for examining not only some of basic presuppositions of Individual Psychology Comparated, but even a reproposing of concepts like “ fictions” and “as if” as being important aspects of ontogenetic development, of the rational mind, of language and socio-cultural dealings. The “Let’s pretend”, and the “pretence” itself, not underestimating their intended reception and their possible disclosure, assume an importance of the “comprehension/explicative” type such as to enable them to be employed through skills and therapeutic approaches (like individuality/metallization “enactment” and “disclosure”). This is development model of the Neo-Fictionalism. A conscious planning and definition of these “adventures” may enrich the Adlerian model in relation to certain aspects theoretical, methodological, practical, clinical cultural and above all therapeutic, bringing into action new interdisciplinary prospects about “explicative comprehension”.

Language and explicative comprehension


071_Gian Giacomo Rovera_Antonio Gatti_ITA

The full article is available for download in Italian only. DOWNLOAD PDF

Summary.  Shared, Explicative Comprehension may find its most suitable collocation in the Dynamic Psychology of Adler, with reference to some of its parameters. The most prominent among these is the Ontogenesis of Language, in its reference to pre-verbal phases of the age of development. The theoretical-methodological and clinical ambit is that of a model which consists of an interdisciplinary network, attentive to the relational aspects, and to interpersonal and intercultural perspectives. This orientation, utilizable in the psychotherapeutic interaction, emphasizes, in particular, the attitude of the therapist, through the medium of a (counter-)transference that is both conscious and intentional (enactment, disclosure, and so on). With reference to this we may draw attention to some techniques which would encourage an emotive meeting up with the transitional, pre-verbal area (earliest memories, the family constellation, dreams etc). The approach, both comprehending and explicative, encourages an empathic participation and an adequate sharing, tending towards the fostering of a therapeutic alliance within the contexts of a culturally-appropriate psychotherapy.

Foreign languages. Arguments of Adlerian cultural psychodynamic

072_Carolina Gasparini_Antonio Gatti_ITA

The full article is available for download in Italian only.

Summary. Immigration is coming more and more frequent, bringing along many problems of cultural  and linguistic communication. People of different native languages have important difficulties when  need a psychotherapy in a foreign country. This work analyzes the most common problems: Language  is not only a communication medium, but it also brings meanings, believes and behaviors which are  the integral part of the cultural heritage. This work also studies the difficulties which can rise in an  intercultural  psychotherapy and the operative ways to overcome them. At last, two clinical cases show  how language is instrumental also from a symbolical point of view.