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Summary. In the last ten years the concept of fiction has resulted in meanings that are complex and different with respect to the traditional terms and to the theory and practice of Individual Comparative Psychology. The psychological “geography” has led to a screening of scientific and clinical research, including also epistemological studies, and even to new psycho-neurological-biological discoveries. Moreover, the present shape of things has resulted in a “reversal” concerning the interpretative horizons of linguistic attitudes, both verbal and non-verbal (for example “irony”) – right up to the arrival o a sort of change of vicissitude of the fictions. “Fictional attitudes” whenever they are shared psychologically are “as if“ they could be propelled up to a meeting point between the subjectivity of the individual and general human actions with respect to the status and roles wherever culturally institutionalized. This could come represent one of the foundations anthropologically and teleonomicamentally oriented. There is, therefore, an opportunity for examining not only some of basic presuppositions of Individual Psychology Comparated, but even a reproposing of concepts like “ fictions” and “as if” as being important aspects of ontogenetic development, of the rational mind, of language and socio-cultural dealings. The “Let’s pretend”, and the “pretence” itself, not underestimating their intended reception and their possible disclosure, assume an importance of the “comprehension/explicative” type such as to enable them to be employed through skills and therapeutic approaches (like individuality/metallization “enactment” and “disclosure”). This is development model of the Neo-Fictionalism. A conscious planning and definition of these “adventures” may enrich the Adlerian model in relation to certain aspects theoretical, methodological, practical, clinical cultural and above all therapeutic, bringing into action new interdisciplinary prospects about “explicative comprehension”.