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Summary. On the ground of the cases treated with an individual-psychologic and psycho-analytic therapy, the authors wonder how two contrasting interpretations can both lead to recovery. Through the analysis of the cases they come to the conclusion that the recovery process always follows the unmasking of a fiction, which keeps its roll of demythicization of the phobic object also when the fiction, which supports it, is replaced by another fiction. However, they affirm that the unmasking of the fiction is intentional and conscious for the adlerian analyst and, on the contrary, it is sometimes unconscious for the orthodox psychoanalyst.